Evaluation of the Effect of Building Information Modeling (BIM) on Mass Housing Construction Projects

Mass housing development can be a desirable model for tackling the challenges that arise in providing adequate housing for developing countries. Mass housing is a construction model with high economic, technical and managerial feasibility. Mass housing is based on the standardization of parts, components, systems and modules and the systematization of processes. This concept has the potential to solve certain economic and social problems as well as technical difficulties. Prefabricated building elements are created off-site in a controlled production environment and follow specified standards, so sub-assemblies of the structure can be built to a consistently high, uniform quality. Same time; However, prefabrication and off-site construction require more coordination and planning during the design phase, which forces construction professionals to make earlier decisions and have better communication and collaboration to avoid costly design changes. In addition to construction benefits and financial savings, prefabrication helps improve sustainability in construction and provides environmental benefits.

The housing market and housing construction in various economies have served as engines of growth. The use of new technologies in public housing brings efficiency potential in terms of time, cost and quality in project delivery; In addition, safety, sustainability, energy efficiency and environmental targets are met. Building information modeling offers the potential to achieve these goals. According to the National Institute of Building Science, building information modeling (BIM) is “a digital representation of the physical and functional properties of a facility. BIM is a shared source of information for information about a facility that provides a reliable basis for decisions throughout its life cycle; it has been defined as existing from the earliest concept to destruction ”.

The activities of the construction sector are of great importance in achieving the national socio-economic development goals, providing shelter, infrastructure and employment. While the construction industry is one of the main drivers of the overall economy, it faces many challenges related to competitiveness, labor shortages, resource efficiency and productivity. BIM is an innovative technology that affects productivity and also improves design, construction and project management. Adopting BIM ensures construction quality, safety and environmental friendliness. For this reason, it has been widely stated that the capabilities of BIM improve operations and facility management, and the integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) helps reduce resource consumption and environmental impact.

Building information modeling facilitates collaboration throughout the project life cycle. BIM improves communication and information management due to more efficient exchange and updates of project data. Project participants need to collaborate using BIM-based processes and procedures. However, collaboration using a BIM system requires the efforts of all members from the early stages. The project is based on principles that include the cooperation of different stakeholders, trust, transparency, efficient communication, open information sharing, risk taking, equal reward, value-based decision-making and the use of all technological and support capabilities. Finally, BIM offers the potential to produce a high quality and performance construction project faster and cheaper, as well as reducing errors and waste of time and costs.

The decision to use BIM is more of a commercial and operational aspect. Maintaining or improving the competitive position in the labor market and harmonizing and strengthening business activities are among the reasons business managers often decide to use the BIM system. In order to succeed in using the BIM system, the necessary regulations corresponding to compliance and community culture within a transformation strategy must be considered. While the potential benefits of BIM are pretty clear, there are some barriers and challenges to implementing BIM in construction. Although BIM has significant potential to increase sustainability and efficiency in all phases of a construction project, the implementation of BIM in construction requires additional investment in new technologies and education and the development of new methods of cooperation. In addition, BIM implementation shifts values ​​towards collaboration, collaboration and customer / end user engagement. The use of BIM has great potential to improve the design and construction of the project. However, BIM is not yet a universal standard in the construction industry; therefore it is possible for construction partners not to use BIM software and; therefore, it will not be able to use BIM models. Implementing new technologies such as BIM is costly in terms of training and investment in software and hardware, as well as changing business processes. BIM implementation is not that advanced in most developing countries, perhaps as it requires additional investments, training and support efforts from all project partners.

Governments across Europe and around the world recognize the value of BIM as a strategic supporter for cost, quality and policy goals. BIM is becoming standard across countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States and the Nordic countries such as Norway, Denmark and Finland. However, BIM technology is not used much in Iran; what appears is the distributed and unintegrated use of modeling software. This study aims to fill the existing research gap in this area by exploring the factors affecting the goals of public housing projects using BIM. While BIM plays a crucial role in managing the cost and time of construction projects and reducing rework, the use of this technology in mass production may make residential industry professionals more interested in the implementation of BIM. Moreover, because construction project success is measured in terms of time, cost and quality, the use of BIM can affect the success of construction projects. Therefore, keeping in mind the added value of BIM, Iranian construction professionals should pay attention to this issue quickly and with greater awareness, as using BIM can improve the quality of design, construction, and operation, saving time and money. It can reduce energy consumption and even improve workplace safety. Considering the content listed above, the aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the factors that affect the goals (cost, time and quality) of public housing projects due to the use of BIM and to answer the question: How is building information modeling done? Does it affect the achievement of the mass housing project goals?

This article aims to identify and investigate the factors that affect the goals of public housing building projects due to the use of Building information modeling (BIM). Descriptive survey method was used to collect the necessary data. Fifty participants from target sectors and experts in building information modeling participated in the self-selection survey. The data collection tools included three surveys on three phases of construction work: pre-construction, during construction and post-construction, developed based on the index of cost, time and quality. The face, content, and construct validity of the questionnaires were verified after several rounds of testing. The reliability coefficients of pre-construction, during construction, and post-construction surveys were 0.923, 0.917 and 0.876, respectively. The results show that the F-statistic is significant at the 0.01 level for the difference between the three groups (pre-construction, during construction and post-construction). The results confirmed that BIM has a major impact on a project in terms of meeting the duration, cost and quality objectives throughout the entire life cycle of a construction project: pre-construction, construction and post-construction phases.