The inefficiency in the construction industry has criticized itself a lot for its significant greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption compared to other industries.
Globally, the building generates 25% of greenhouse gas emissions and consumes 32% of final energy. In line with the goals set by the European Union, it is ideal for future buildings to use less energy and use energy more efficiently and to tackle local renewable resources. Developers, customers and building owners are key consumers of sustainable buildings. Housing construction has become a priority with increasing urbanization, which has resulted in an increased need for infrastructure in societies in general. There are many challenges with the building’s impact on the economy, society and environment. Designers are faced with the task of meeting the needs of both new and old facilities to be safe with minimal environmental impact. Good design decision at the first stage of construction projects plays an important role in ensuring the sustainability of design structures. Therefore, the design can regulate approximately 70% of the environmental impacts throughout the building’s life cycle.
Sustainability and BIM have a strong synergy that is embraced by both the professional and educational communities. For example, there are efforts to use advanced modeling and simulation technology by involving stakeholders for energy savings in capital projects in the United States. During the design and pre-construction phases of buildings, BIM has evolved into a relevant phase as it enables the sharing of multidisciplinary data in a familiar situation. BIM’s data distribution capabilities can likewise be valuable when assessing sustainability challenges and deciding related options at the design stage. BIM-based procedures can promote sustainable design. Notably, these include advancing the selection of maintainable materials, reducing material usage, and expanding the use of reused materials. The use of BIM will enable designers to refine their designs and choose the most suitable in terms of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions.
Due to the complex workloads faced by designers within the construction industry, achieving optimal design is very difficult. BIM application can help significantly in achieving sustainable construction via design optimization. Optimization is searching for optimal solutions concerning some limited performance criteria.
The inclusion of facility managers at the late stage of the building lifecycle has become a norm in facility hand over to clients . BIM has demonstrated a clear improvement in design and construction and it is starting to evolve into facility management . The total lifecycle cost to operate and maintain a facility is higher compared to the cost of design and construction. This has become the reason why construction players are putting more interest in the practical knowledge of BIM to operate their buildings more efficiently. BIM in facility management is a new area and there are still not more ideas on the field. The effort of BIM on facility management is focused mainly on new buildings .
3.Integrated project delivery
Integrated project delivery is the process of bringing together all stakeholders, systems, business structure, and practice into working collaboratively to achieve optimum goals via knowledge sharing. BIM has not been fully successful due to the adversarial and fragmentation of the construction industry . Integrated project delivery is aimed to assist construction players in minimizing waste, cutting cost and to improve productivity .
4.Reduced material needs and waste
Waste has become a major setback within the construction industry by making the environment unsustainable. Inconsistency and ambiguous information are the main reason for error and delay in the construction industry. The need, therefore, arises to obtained explicit storage to share project information between participants . BIM addresses the problem by getting the right information at the right time .
5.Bioclimatic and integrative design
BIM is an instrument with the sole responsibility of linking sustainable construction with integrated design and with a building life cycle. Among the justification of bioclimatic design are achieving maximum comfort and minimizing energy and cost of building operations .
6.Design for deconstruction
BIM serves many processes for deconstruction including design, material recovery, reuse, and recycling. BIM has a lot of integration with technologies such as RFID, GIS, big data, and others. Despite the BIM benefit achieved in the construction industry, its application at the end of its life is neglected.
7.Reduce cost and mitigate risk
5D BIM implementation has the capabilities of project cost control which results in it getting popularity among construction stakeholders. The application of BIM to minimize risk in the construction process is noticed within the construction industry . Numerous studies describe the development of BIM and BIM-related technologies for risk management. There are limited studies on BIM and the traditional method of managing risk.
BIM is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility . Building information modelling application introduces one of the most reliable applications that develop a four-dimensional model with a combinational of a three-dimensional model with time. BIM – based 4D Modelling has the potential of not only improving the perception of the planner and construction team but also facilitate the procedure of planning and scheduling .
9.Low embodied energy, labour intensive and recycled material
Construction is said to be sustainable by measuring how green it is with regards to material and energy consumed during construction, occupancy, maintenance and demolition. BIM provides a better opportunity for building analysis by pairing the analysis software and BIM for a smooth assessment of building performance. BIM aid designers in the selection of environmentally friendly materials including materials with less embodied energy profile toward achieving sustainable construction. BIM helps in reducing the selection of labour-intensive material due to its positive impact in the delivery of material which is both quantifiable and unquantifiable.